Just finished the chapter that looks at arabic in English.
'check' in chess comes from the Persian 'shah' meaning King. 'Checkmate' is 'shah mat' or, 'the King is dead'. Incidentally, 'Chess' itself comes from French, but the Portuguese name for the game 'xadrez' still has links to the Persian name for the game; 'shatranj'.
Understandably, much of it comes from trade. So you get 'tariff' which meant definition or notification, 'carat' which was the weight of four grains (of what unspecified) and 'average' which in the sixteenth century was a financial loss shared equally between buyers and sellers if stuff was lost. It is traced through 'awariyah' meaning damaged goods.
This is my current favourite. 'Candy' comes from the Persian 'qand' meaning the juice of the sugar cane. I love the idea of middle america being inextricably linked to a language kept alive mainly in Iran.
with thanks and apologies to Henry Hitchings